Customs and its history in Iran
Customs word root The customs have been adopted at the root of the word Comercium, and in the French and English languages Commerce means trade and commodity exchange, and according to some writers, after the conquest of Constantinople, the Ottoman government derived the term from the Greek language, and used the Turkish pronunciation, namely, the Kommers and in Persian this word is derived from Turkish.
Customs word root
The customs have been adopted at the root of the word Comercium, and in the French and English languages Commerce means trade and commodity exchange, and according to some writers, after the conquest of Constantinople, the Ottoman government derived the term from the Greek language, and used the Turkish pronunciation, namely, the Kommers and in Persian this word is derived from Turkish.
Customs is a government agency that is responsible for the enforcement of customs laws and the payment of import and export taxes and duties, as well as for the enforcement of other laws and regulations related to import, transit and export of goods.
Customs History in Iran
Customs has a long history in Iran. At the time of the Parthians (the third century BC), there was a customs office in Iran, and what came to the country (such as silk of China, spices of India and Roman goods) was registered in certain offices and received from their owner's certain rights. In this period of export, customs clearance has been exempted. In later periods in Iran, the trend was more conventional free trade. From the time of Safavid onwards, the goods were imported into the country with rights and duties called Farze. Customs duties on goods imported through the Persian Gulf have been determined according to their quality, but since the government has not been able to closely monitor the customs clearance, since the time of king Suleiman (1085 AH / 1674 AD) customs were leased and this procedure continued for more than two centuries until the arrival of Belgian negotiators in Iran.
In the year 1277 H., customs lease was canceled in accordance with the Turkmenchai agreement. It was mentioned in the treaty that the goods imported from Tsarist Russia would receive only 5 percent of the price as customs duties and, three years later, other states, as well as the full powers of the state, began to use the benefits and in fact the customs duties in Iran Without trading with the Iranian government, it was uniformly based on five percent.
When the Iranian government borrowed from Russia and the United Kingdom, and the northern and southern customs revenues were taken hostage to these loans, in order to prevent the likelihood of customs revenues and in view of the need to observe the political balance, the Iranian government at the time of Muzaffaroddin Shah and Amin al-Dawlah's prime minister recruited Belgian advisers. According to the proposal of the head of the board who was named the Minister of Customs and also the command of king on 18th of December 1318 AH. leasing of customs offices and collecting domestic duties supposed to be deducted from the price of goods at the rate of 5%, and if there were more than forty Man (old weight measurement unit) of Tabriz will be received 22 Shahi (old weight measurement unit).
After the establishment of the constitution, the title of the ministry was dismissed from the head of the Belgian Advisory Board, and the Customs Department was supervised by the Ministry of Finance. The first Iranian customs tariff was based on weight and value in 1282 by the Belgian advisers, and after its implementation after ten years, the customs revenue of the country, which was 10 million Rials in the year 1277, grew to 47 million Rials. In 1299 H. there was another tariff based on the weight and number of imports, which consisted of 52 chapters and 94 parts, and in terms of exports, consisting of 12 chapters. The maximum rights received under this tariff were in 1306 AH. which was over 90 million Rials.
Following the abolition of the capitulation, the first law of the Iranian Customs Tariff was approved in May of 1307 on the basis of minimum and maximum customs duties. Accordingly, the government that recognized the abolition of the capitulation and, as a result, entered into a trade agreement with Iran, benefited from minimum tariffs, and goods imported from other countries were subject to the payment of maximum customs duties.
In 1315, 1320, 1329 and 1332 AD several times the Iranian Customs Tariff Law was revised. Finally, the Customs Tariff Law was approved by the National Assembly on July 10, 1337, using the experiences of the former League of Nations and the plan for custom tariffs, which was welcomed and used in many countries of the world. The Act contains 36 articles and an annex table, which consists of 21 chapters, 86 sections and 991 types of goods. In these chapters, the types of goods are mentioned as primary, semi-manufactured, finished and ready to be used, and in accordance with the requirements of the country, domestic production, the strengthening and support of the national industry and the purchasing power and the level of consumer demand for them, customs duties is set up. The revenue of the Customs Office in the first year of its establishment (1277 AD) totaled ten million Rials and in 1338 it reached over 9 billion Rials, which was one third of the total budget of the country. In return for this huge income, the customs office's fees in the year 1338 amounted to 240 million Rials, less than 3% of the income. The Customs Law was revised in 2011 and the new Customs Code was communicated in January of the same year.
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